• Aims and Scope
• Open Access
• Article Types
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and Animal Rights
• Standardizing Reporting Guidelines
• Informed consent and patient details
• Declaration of competing interest
• Submission Declaration and Verification
• Changes to Authorship
• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Peer Review
• References
• Tables
• Figure Legends
• Artwork
• Color Artwork
• Illustration Services
• Video Data
• Supplementary Data
• Research Data
• Style
• Journal Abbreviations and Acronyms
• (Nomenclature and) Units
• Drug Names
• Permissions
• Revised Manuscripts
• Proofs
• Offprints

Authors must electronically submit new and revised manuscripts in all categories on Editorial Manager at Please note that The Journal of Hand Surgery Global Online (JHS GO) uses a double-blinded review process.

Before beginning to write for JHS GO, prospective authors should read these instructions completely.

Aims and Scope

The Journal of Hand Surgery Global Online (JHS GO) is an open access quarterly journal that is a clinically-oriented, peer-reviewed, international forum for the latest techniques and advances in hand and upper extremity surgery. It publishes original articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the upper extremity; these include clinical and basic science studies and systematic reviews along with brief communications, case reports, review articles, surgical technique articles, policy papers and guidelines, and letters to the editor. JHS GO is online-only, though reprints of articles may be purchased from Elsevier.

Questions relating to the editorial management of JHS GO may be directed to the Editorial Office:

Tamara D. Rozental, MD, Editor-in-Chief
The Journal of Hand Surgery Global Online
American Society for Surgery of the Hand
822 West Washington Boulevard
Chicago, IL 60607
Phone: (312) 880-1900
Fax: (847) 384-1435
Email: [email protected]

Editorial policies: Statements and opinions expressed in JHS GO are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Editor or Publisher. The Editor and Publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the Editor nor the Publisher guarantees, warrants, or endorses any product or service advertised in this publication; nor do they guarantee any claims made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

Open Access

JHS GO is fully open access; all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download upon publication.

To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as: open access publication fee) that needs to be met by the authors or their research funders upon article acceptance. Please note that if there is financial hardship, authors may request scholarship funding in their cover letter (funding is not guaranteed). Priority for waivers will be given to applications by authors from countries eligible for the Research4Life program. (see

The open access fee is all inclusive; Elsevier will not add any additional charges. Depending on local regulations VAT can be charged by local authorities. The open access publication fees for this journal depending on the type of article and ASSH membership status:

JHSG Open Access Fee Table
Type of Paper ASSH Member Fee Non-member Fee
Original Research, Clinical (also known as: Full Length Article) 1000 USD 2000 USD
Original Research, Basic Science (also known as: Full Length Article) 1000 USD 2000 USD
Systematic Review (also known as: Full Length Article) 1000 USD 2000 USD
Case Report 500 USD 1000 USD
Review Article, Trial Protocol 1000 USD 2000 USD
Surgical Technique Article 500 USD 1000 USD
Brief Communication 500 USD 1000 USD
Policy Paper/Guidelines 1000 USD 2000 USD
Letter to the Editor No fee No fee

Permitted (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user license (see
  • Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies (see This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Article Requirements At-A-Glance

Documents required for all types of submissions include:
  • Completed COI form from each author
  • Cover Letter
  • Title Page (.DOC or .DOCX file) that contains:
    • Your full title. The title may not be a question and should not state the study’s results
    • A running head of up to 45 characters
    • Author names with up to 2 academic credentials per author (please exclude professional certifications such as OTR/L, RN, and PT)
    • Up to 5 key words listed in alphabetical order
    • The corresponding author’s name and contact information
    • Acknowledgements (if applicable)
  • Blinded Manuscript (.DOC or .DOCX file) that:
    • Is single-column, double-spaced, 2.5-cm margins, with lines continuously numbered.
    • Begins with your abstract; note that abstracts must not include footnotes, statistical results, references, or figure/table callouts.
    • Does not include authors’ and institutions’ names and/or initials.
    • Includes references formatted in AMA style and cited numerically, in chronological order.

See the table below for additional requirements for each article type.

Article Type Maximum Number of Authors* Abstract Blinded Manuscript: Required Headings Blinded Manuscript: Word Counts Reference Counts Figure Counts
Original Research, Basic Science (also known as: Full Length Article) 6 Yes; 5 sections include Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, & Type of Study/Level of Evidence Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Figure Legends (if applicable) Abstract up to 300 words; Manuscript** up to 3000 words No limit No limit
Original Research, Clinical (also known as: Full Length Article) 6 Yes; 5 sections include Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, & Clinical Relevance Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Figure Legends (if applicable) Abstract up to 300 words; Manuscript** up to 3000 words No limit No limit
Systematic Review (also known as: Full Length Article) 6 Yes; 5 sections include Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, & Clinical Relevance Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Figure Legends (if applicable) Abstract up to 300 words; Manuscript** up to 3000 words No limit No limit
Review Article 4 Yes; 1 paragraph N/A Abstract up to 300 words; Manuscript** up to 3000 words Up to 20 No limit
Surgical Technique 3 Yes; 1 paragraph Abstract, Introduction, Indications and Contraindications, Surgical Anatomy, Surgical Technique, Postoperative Management, Pearls and Pitfalls, Complications, Case Illustration, References, Figure Legends (if applicable) Abstract up to 300 words; Manuscript** up to 2500 words No limit No limit
Case Report 6 Yes; 1 paragraph Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, References, Figure Legends (if applicable) Abstract up to 150 words; Manuscript** up to 1500 words Up to 10 No limit
Brief Communication 6 Yes; 1 paragraph Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Figure Legends (if applicable) Abstract up to 300 words; Manuscript** up to 1500 words Up to 10 No limit
Policy Paper/Guidelines 6 Yes; 1 paragraph Abstract, Introduction, Problem Statement, Proposed Solution, Future Direction & Long Term Focus, Recommendations, References, Figure Legends (if applicable) Abstract up to 300 words; Manuscript** up to 3000 words No limit No limit
Letter to the Editor 3 N/A N/A Up to 300 words** Up to 5 Up to 1
*If the number of authors on your paper exceeds the requested maximum, please include all authors on your Title Page and explain how each author participated in the study in your Cover Letter.
**Does not include references or legends.

Article Types

Full Length Articles (Clinical, Basic Science, and Systematic Review)

Full Length Articles include Original Research articles – which are clinical and basic science studies – and Systematic Reviews. Restrict Full Length Article manuscripts to fewer than 3,000 words. In both the abstract and in the main body, avoid claiming priority of findings. For example, avoid statements such as, "This paper is the first to report..." Formatting, such as Greek letters, italics, superscripts, and subscripts, may be used. The coding scheme for such elements must be consistent throughout. Organization of blinded manuscripts is as follows.


  • For peer-reviewed clinical studies, submit a structured abstract limited to 300 words and divided into 5 sections: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, and Level of Evidence (see table
  • For peer-reviewed basic science studies and systematic reviews, submit a structured abstract limited to 300 words divided into 5 sections: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, and Clinical Relevance.

In fewer than 500 words and in 3 to 4 paragraphs, include the study's background, rationale, questions or hypotheses posed, and novelty. Each of the questions or hypotheses should be sufficiently important to appear in the abstract.

Materials and methods

Present the study design clearly. Identify and describe the measurement parameters. Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid sole reliance on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, which fails to convey important quantitative information.

Statistical methods should be described in detail, with particular emphasis on the statistical strategy that was used to analyze the data. The most appropriate strategy fits the collected data and addresses the research question/hypothesis stated in the Introduction.

In the analysis of categorical data, utilize exact methods wherever possible. Where the variable of interest cannot be assumed to have a normal distribution, use non-parametric methods of analysis. Report results with only as much precision as is of value. In general, the approach suggested in Bailar JC 3rd, Mosteller F. Guidelines for statistical reporting in articles for medical journals. Amplifications and explanations. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108:266-273 should be used.

P values are required to support any statement indicating a statistically significant difference.

Ninety-five percent confidence intervals are required for any estimate appearing in the text or graphs. Use of the word correlation requires reporting of the correlation coefficient.

Do not identify any statistical software unless some aspect of the analysis was uniquely dependent on a particular software package.

Validated outcome instruments should be used wherever possible. Novel measurement scales should be used only if existing scales are deemed insufficient in some way to the needs of the study. References to psychometric characteristics of new scales, such as those related to reliability, must be included. If an outcome system leads to a categorical ranking (excellent, good, etc.), then the aggregate score for each patient should be provided.


In less than 500 words, present the findings in the same order that you pose the questions or hypotheses in the Introduction. Data should be presented only once, in a text, table, or graph.


In fewer than 1,000 words, briefly restate the rationale and the questions, then explore major limitations and compare and contrast the study's results with previous work. Include 1 paragraph for each question or hypothesis. Synthesize the current results with those previously published. It is JHS GO's style not to include a Conclusion section since this is typically redundant with the abstract.

See the Preparation section for information on references, table, figures, and videos.

Case Reports

To be worthy of publication, a case report must have extraordinary teaching value to the readers. Typically we do not accept cases where 2 findings are associated since the findings are often coincidentally rather than causally related. Restrict the abstract to 150 words and highlight the unique features of the case. In sections identified as Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion and in fewer than 1,500 words, introduce the topic, present the case, and discuss its novelty and educational value. Limit references to 10 citations.

Review Articles

Review articles in JHS GO will focus on up-to-date information covering essential topics in hand and upper extremity surgery. Review articles should be no more than 3,000 words and include a one-paragraph abstract. Articles must have no more than three authors and no more than 20 references. Articles must review recent developments and must emphasize the best evidence for management and treatment strategies. Authors are encouraged to submit a technical video with their article. Links may also be provided to other articles already published in JHS GO that may have described techniques or give reference to evidence-based medicine.

Surgical Technique Articles

Surgical Technique articles provide step-by-step details of various surgical procedures relevant to clinical practice. Articles discuss indications and contraindications, surgical anatomy, surgical technique, postoperative management, pearls and pitfalls, and complications; many articles also provide a case illustration. Articles should be no more than 2,500 words, and they should include a one-paragraph abstract. Videos and/or high-resolution photographs are strongly encouraged.

Brief Communications

Brief Communications are preliminary reports that are not yet mature enough to be considered as full length articles, yet are still of interest to JHS GO's readership. A one paragraph abstract of no more than 300 words is required. It is preferred that Brief Communication papers be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Manuscripts should be no more than 1,500 words. Articles must have no more than 6 authors and no more than 10 references.

Policy Paper/Guidelines

Policy Papers discuss a legitimate issue with a current policy. Guidelines typically summarize an organization's policy or position., particularly when it applies to clinical decision-making. Policy Papers and Guidelines must be divided into the following sections: Abstract, Introduction, Problem Statement, Proposed Solution, Future Direction & Long-Term Focus, Recommendations. These manuscripts should be no more than 3,000 words; the one-paragraph abstract should be no more than 300 words. Submissions must have no more than 6 authors.

Letters to the Editor

Letters to the Editor may be independent observations, or they may relate to a previously published article. Letters must not duplicate information submitted elsewhere for publication or previously published. Letters are subject to editing and abridgement without the author's review. Limit the body of the letter to 300 words, authors to 3, references to 5, and tables or figures to 1. We are more likely to publish a letter relating to a previously published article when we receive it promptly after the article is published. We will forward the letter to the author(s) for comment (maximum 300 words and 5 references). The policies regarding conflicts and disclosures for full manuscripts apply to letters as well.

Trial Protocols

Protocol papers should report planned or ongoing studies. Manuscripts that report work already carried out will not be considered as protocols. The dates of the study must be included in the manuscript and cover letter. Protocols for studies that will require ethical approval, such as trials, are unlikely to be considered without having received that approval. Title: this should include the specific study type, e.g. randomized controlled trial. Abstract: this should be structured with the following sections. Introduction; Methods and analysis; Discussion. Registration details should be included as a final section, if appropriate. Introduction: explain the rationale for the study and what evidence gap it may fill. Appropriate previous literature should be referenced, including relevant systematic reviews. Methods and analysis: provide a full description of the study design, including the following. How the sample will be selected; interventions to be measured; the sample size calculation (drawing on previous literature) with an estimate of how many participants will be needed for the primary outcome to be statistically, clinically and/or politically significant; what outcomes will be measured, when and how; a data analysis plan. Discussion: This section should include past contributions and existing problems in the field, major novel findings of the study and the study strengths and limitations. Ethical and safety considerations and dissemination plans should also be addressed. Word count: 3000 (If the word count must exceed this, please indicate why in the Cover Letter file.)

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

JHS GO adheres to the ethical standards described by the Committee on Publication Ethics ( and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( Authors are expected to adhere to these standards.

Human and Animal Rights

  • Human subjects: Articles involving research conducted in human subjects must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section indicating approval by the institutional review board and noting that informed consent, as well as any necessary HIPAA consent, was obtained from each patient. For reports of research using human subjects, provide assurance that (a) necessary and appropriate consent was obtained from each patient and (b) the study protocol conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a prior approval by the appropriate institutional review committee. Identify patients by number, not by initials. Clinical trials must be registered in a public trials registry. Denote the registry and registry number.
  • Animal experimentation: Manuscripts reporting animal experiments must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section that animal care complied with the guidelines of the authors' institution and the National Institutes of Health and any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals.

Standardizing Reporting Guidelines

JHS GO is committed to standardized reporting of clinical trials, meta-analyses, and other studies:
  • Case reports and patient series: Authors should adhere to CARE (CAse REport) guidelines ( and indicate in the manuscript that they have done so. Please use this checklist as reference: There is an online tool for authors:
  • Observational studies, Case Control studies and cohort studies:Authors should adhere to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines ( and indicate in the manuscript that they have done so.
  • Diagnostic measure research: Authors should adhere to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines ( and indicate in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript that they have done so.
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: Authors should adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines ( and indicate in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript that they have done so.
    • A worthy meta-analysis will follow the PRISMA guidelines, be hypothesis driven to address a specific aspect of a topic, include sufficient (ideally at least 10) Level I and II evidence studies that can be supplemented with comparative Level III studies, and not include Level IV studies. The result should clarify the issue addressed.
    • A repeat meta-analysis should follow the original study by at least 5 years, analyze at least 50% more data, and follow the above guidelines.
    • A worthy systematic review will follow the PRISMA guidelines, be hypothesis driven, focus on a specific aspect of a topic, and may include low level evidence. The results should clarify the issue addressed.
  • Randomized clinical trials: Authors should adhere to the Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines ( and indicate in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript that they have done so.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Declaration of competing interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of competing interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. Note: Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required. If there are no interests to declare, please choose the first option in the template. More information.

Submission Declaration and Verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Changes to Authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (see more information on this). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


JHS GO is published in American English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use an English Language Editing service. See the Language (usage and editing services) section of these author instructions for services that Elsevier offers.

Peer Review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.


Authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy and completeness of references. References should not be merely a listing of the results of a computerized literature search but should have been read by the author and deemed pertinent to the manuscript. Type references double-spaced on pages separate from the text and number them consecutively by the order of their citation in the text. Identify references with (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals. Do not use an automated end notes system or automatic list numbering because these features are lost when converting the manuscript into the form necessary for publication.

JHS GO requires references to be formatted according to the latest edition of the American Medical Association's Manual of Style (

Do not cite meeting abstracts, personal communications, or unpublished material (including oral and poster presentations, correspondence club letters, and manuscripts not yet accepted for publication) in the reference list. If critical to the manuscript's message, cite this material in the text within parentheses.

References should be made to source material and not to review articles in which a particular reference may have been mentioned. Review articles should only be referenced if they represent either a meta-analysis or a systematic review which has resulted in a conclusion.

If a reference source is not yet published but has been accepted for publication, include the source in the reference list and submit the letter of acceptance along with the manuscript.

Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see

List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

 - JHS GO Reference Examples

Citations in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).

Reference linking requirements

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL and the date when the reference was last accessed should be given. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (eg, after the reference list) under a different heading if desired or can be included in the reference list.


Tables must be editable .DOC or .DOCX files. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with a superscript symbol, not letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Each table should be on a separate page. Submit lengthy tables and extended data for publication as supplementary material in the online journal.

Figure Legends

Number figures consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Ensure that each illustration has a caption. On a page separate from the body of the manuscript, type figure legends double-spaced. Number the figures with Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Provide sufficient explanation to render the figure intelligible without reference to the text. Define all symbols and all abbreviations not yet spelled out in the text. For reproduction of any copyrighted material, include written permission from the copyright holder.


All figures and illustrations should be oriented so the distal component (eg, the fingertip) is at the top. The names of the subject, author, or institution must not appear anywhere on the figure.

Figure numbers must correspond with the order in which figures occur in the text. Obscure the identity of any person included in a photograph or include the person's written permission to be identified.

If a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the original copyright holder to reproduce the material before the manuscript is submitted to production. Authors are responsible for applying for permission for both print and electronic rights for all borrowed materials and are responsible for paying any fees related to the applications of these permissions.

Electronic Artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color Artwork

Submit color illustrations as original photographs, high-quality computer prints, or transparencies, close to the size expected in publication. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format TIFF (or JPEG) or EPS format. Color images must be CMYK and at least 300 DPI. Gray scale images should be at least 300 DPI. Apply any digital manipulation of an image (eg, brightness, color, or contrast) to the whole image in order not to misrepresent the original image. Enhancement or masking of a portion of an image is unacceptable unless clearly and completely explained in the legend. Use professionally produced arrows or other markers placed directly on the figure to identify important features. Do not write on the illustrations. Crop figures as necessary to emphasize the subject material. Do not include photographs or x-rays of normal findings. Submit line art with no gradations of shading, as they will not reproduce well. Use cross-hatching or patterns where shading is necessary. Artwork and photographs submitted in color will be reproduced in full color in the Journal at no charge to the authors. Please see instructions for submitting digital art at To create the art, use graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator, not presentation software such as PowerPoint, Corel-Draw, or Harvard Graphics. Combinations of gray scale and line art should be at least 1,200 DPI. Line art (black and white or color) should be at least 1,200 DPI. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (eg, ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Illustration Services

Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Video Data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary Data

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Data References

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Research Data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data

This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


When not otherwise specified in these Instructions to Authors or in the JHS GO style guide, defer to the guidelines specified in the latest edition of the American Medical Association's Manual of Style (

As a final step before submitting your manuscript, turn on the "Display Readability Statistics" function in Microsoft Word. Instructions to do so are in the Help Menu. Then subject the manuscript to Microsoft Word's Spelling and Grammar checker and consider making the changes it recommends. For instance, JHS GO encourages active verb forms. On completion of the spelling and grammar check, Microsoft Word will give you the percentage of sentences with passive verb forms, the Flesch Reading Ease score, and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. Please indicate these 3 scores in your cover letter. Going through this process and reporting the results will make the writing stronger and will facilitate the review process.

Journal Abbreviations and Acronyms

If an abbreviation or acronym appears more than 3 times in the abstract or more than 3 times in the article, spell out an abbreviation or acronym the first time it is used, followed by the shortened version in parentheses. Spell out all abbreviations and acronyms at the beginning of sentences.

(Nomenclature and) Units

Use Systme International (SI) measurements. For clarity, nonmetric equivalents may be included in parentheses following the SI measurements.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Drug Names

Use generic names. You may cite proprietary names in parentheses along with the name and location of the manufacturer.


Obtain and submit written permission for use from the original copyright holder for any lengthy direct quotations, tables, or illustrations taken from copyrighted material. Include the permission in the text, table footnote, or figure legend and provide complete information as to source. Photographs of identifiable persons must be accompanied by a signed release that indicates informed consent.

Revised Manuscripts

It is mandatory that the authors of manuscripts re-submitted after revisions systematically answer each and every point raised in the initial review; we recommend that responses are placed in a table that includes a clear description of the exact location in the revised manuscript where changes have been made. A template for the Table of Revisions can be found here.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Level of evidence for primary research question: types of clinical studies

 - JHS GO Levels of Evidence


The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.